# Math Symbols List (+,-,x,/,=,...) (2023)

List of all mathematical symbols and signs - meaning and examples.

SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample=equals signequality5 = 2+3
5 is equal to 2+3≠not equal signinequality5 ≠ 4
5 is not equal to 4≈approximately equalapproximationsin(0.01) ≈ 0.01,
xy means x is approximately equal to y>strict inequalitygreater than5 > 4
5 is greater than 4<strict inequalityless than4 < 5
4 is less than 5≥inequalitygreater than or equal to5 ≥ 4,
xymeans x is greater than or equal to y≤inequalityless than or equal to4 ≤ 5,
x ≤ y means xis less than or equal to y( )parenthesescalculate expression inside first 2 × (3+5) = 16[ ]bracketscalculate expression inside first [(1+2)×(1+5)] = 18+plus signaddition1 + 1 = 2−minus signsubtraction2 − 1 = 1±plus - minusboth plus and minus operations3 ± 5 = 8 or -2±minus - plusboth minus and plus operations3 ∓ 5 = -2 or 8*asteriskmultiplication2 * 3 = 6×times signmultiplication2 × 3 = 6⋅multiplication dotmultiplication2 ⋅ 3 = 6÷division sign / obelusdivision6 ÷ 2 = 3/division slashdivision6 / 2 = 3—horizontal linedivision / fraction modmoduloremainder calculation7 mod 2 = 1.perioddecimal point, decimal separator2.56 = 2+56/100abpowerexponent23 = 8a^bcaretexponent2 ^ 3 = 8√asquare root

aa = a

9 = ±33acube root3a3a 3a = a38 = 24afourth root4a4a 4a 4a =a416 = ±2nan-th root (radical)for n=3, n8 = 2%percent1% = 1/10010% × 30 = 3‰per-mille1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%10‰ × 30 = 0.3ppmper-million1ppm = 1/100000010ppm × 30 = 0.0003ppbper-billion1ppb = 1/100000000010ppb × 30 = 3×10-7pptper-trillion1ppt = 10-1210ppt × 30 = 3×10-10
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample∠angleformed by two rays∠ABC = 30° measured angle ABC = 30° spherical angle AOB = 30°∟right angle= 90°α = 90°°degree1 turn = 360°α = 60°degdegree1 turn = 360degα = 60deg′primearcminute, 1° = 60′α = 60°59′″double primearcsecond, 1′ = 60″α = 60°59′59″ lineinfinite lineABline segmentline from point A to point B rayline that start from point A arcarc from point A to point B = 60°⊥perpendicularperpendicular lines (90° angle)ACBC&par;parallelparallel linesAB &par; CD≅congruent toequivalence of geometric shapes and size∆ABC≅ ∆XYZ~similaritysame shapes, not same size∆ABC~ ∆XYZΔtriangletriangle shapeΔABC≅ ΔBCD|x-y|distancedistance between points x and y| x-y | = 5πpi constantπ = 3.141592654...

is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

(Video) Top 50 Mathematical Symbols In English and Greek
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExamplexx variableunknown value to findwhen 2x = 4, then x = 2≡equivalenceidentical to≜equal by definitionequal by definition:=equal by definitionequal by definition~approximately equalweak approximation11 ~ 10≈approximately equalapproximationsin(0.01) ≈ 0.01∝proportional toproportional to

yx when y = kx, k constant

(Video) List of Mathematical Symbols in English | MATH Symbols Vocabulary Words

lemniscateinfinity symbol≪much less thanmuch less than1 ≪ 1000000≫much greater thanmuch greater than1000000 ≫ 1( )parenthesescalculate expression inside first 2 * (3+5) = 16[ ]bracketscalculate expression inside first [(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18{ }bracesset⌊x⌋floor bracketsrounds number to lower integer⌊4.3⌋ = 4⌈x⌉ceiling bracketsrounds number to upper integer⌈4.3⌉ = 5x!exclamation markfactorial4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24| x |vertical barsabsolute value| -5 | = 5f (x)function of xmaps values of x to f(x)f (x) = 3x+5(fg)function composition(fg) (x) = f (g(x))f (x)=3x,g(x)=x-1⇒(fg)(x)=3(x-1)(a,b)open interval(a,b) = {x | a < x < b}x∈ (2,6)[a,b]closed interval[a,b] = {x | axb}x ∈ [2,6]∆deltachange / difference∆t = t1 - t0∆discriminantΔ = b2 - 4ac∑sigmasummation - sum of all values in range of series∑ xi= x1+x2+...+xn∑∑sigmadouble summation ∏capital piproduct - product of all values in range of series∏ xi=x1∙x2∙...∙xnee constant/ Euler's numbere = 2.718281828...e = lim (1+1/x)x, x→∞γEuler-Mascheroni constantγ = 0.5772156649...φgolden ratiogolden ratio constantπpi constantπ = 3.141592654...

is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

c = πd = 2⋅πr
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample·dotscalar producta · b×crossvector producta × bABtensor producttensor product of A and BAB inner product[ ]bracketsmatrix of numbers( )parenthesesmatrix of numbers| A |determinantdeterminant of matrix Adet(A)determinantdeterminant of matrix A || x ||double vertical barsnormATtransposematrix transpose(AT)ij = (A)jiAHermitian matrixmatrix conjugate transpose(A)ij = (A)jiA*Hermitian matrixmatrix conjugate transpose(A*)ij =(A)jiA-1inverse matrixA A-1 = Irank(A)matrix rankrank of matrix Arank(A) = 3dim(U)dimensiondimension of matrix Adim(U) = 3
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExampleP(A)probability functionprobability of event AP(A) = 0.5P(AB)probability of events intersectionprobability that of events A and BP(AB) = 0.5P(AB)probability of events unionprobability that of events A or BP(AB) = 0.5P(A | B)conditional probability functionprobability of event A given event B occuredP(A | B) = 0.3f (x)probability density function (pdf)P(a x b) = ∫ f (x) dxF(x)cumulative distribution function (cdf)F(x) = P(X x)μpopulation meanmean of population valuesμ = 10E(X)expectation valueexpected value of random variable XE(X) = 10E(X | Y)conditional expectationexpected value of random variable X given YE(X | Y=2) = 5var(X)variancevariance of random variable Xvar(X) = 4σ2variancevariance of population valuesσ2 = 4std(X)standard deviationstandard deviation of random variable Xstd(X) = 2σXstandard deviationstandard deviation value of random variable XσX = 2 medianmiddle value of random variable x cov(X,Y)covariancecovariance of random variables X and Ycov(X,Y) = 4corr(X,Y)correlationcorrelation of random variables X and Ycorr(X,Y) = 0.6ρX,Ycorrelationcorrelation of random variables X and YρX,Y= 0.6∑summationsummation - sum of all values in range of series ∑∑double summationdouble summation Momodevalue that occurs most frequently in populationMRmid-rangeMR = (xmax+xmin)/2Mdsample medianhalf the population is below this valueQ1lower / first quartile25% of population are below this valueQ2median / second quartile50% of population are below this value = median of samplesQ3upper / third quartile75% of population are below this value xsample meanaverage / arithmetic mean x = (2+5+9) / 3 = 5.333s 2sample variancepopulation samples variance estimators 2 = 4ssample standard deviation population samples standard deviation estimators = 2zxstandard scorezx = (x-x)/ sxX ~distribution of Xdistribution of random variable XX ~ N(0,3) N(μ,σ2)normal distributiongaussian distributionX ~ N(0,3) U(a,b)uniform distributionequal probability in range a,b X ~ U(0,3) exp(λ)exponential distributionf (x) = λe-λx , x≥0gamma(c, λ)gamma distributionf (x) = λ c xc-1e-λx/ Γ(c), x≥0χ 2(k)chi-square distributionf (x) = xk/2-1e-x/2/ ( 2k/2 Γ(k/2) )F (k1, k2)F distribution Bin(n,p)binomial distributionf (k) = nCk pk(1-p)n-k Poisson(λ)Poisson distributionf (k) = λke-λ / k! Geom(p)geometric distributionf (k) = p(1-p) k HG(N,K,n)hyper-geometric distributionBern(p)Bernoulli distribution
(Video) Math Symbol Tier List
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExamplen!factorialn! = 1⋅2⋅3⋅...⋅n5! = 1⋅2⋅3⋅4⋅5 = 120nPkpermutation 5P3 =5! / (5-3)! = 60nCk combination 5C3 =5!/[3!(5-3)!]=10
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample{ }seta collection of elementsA = {3,7,9,14},
B = {9,14,28}A ∩ Bintersectionobjects that belong to set A and set BA ∩ B = {9,14}A ∪ Bunionobjects that belong to set A or set BA ∪ B = {3,7,9,14,28}A ⊆ BsubsetA is a subset of B. set A is included in set B.{9,14,28} ⊆ {9,14,28}A ⊂ Bproper subset / strict subsetA is a subset of B, but A is not equal to B.{9,14} ⊂ {9,14,28}A ⊄ Bnot subsetset A is not a subset of set B{9,66} ⊄ {9,14,28}A ⊇ BsupersetA is a superset of B. set A includes set B{9,14,28} ⊇ {9,14,28}A ⊃ Bproper superset / strict supersetA is a superset of B, but B is not equal to A.{9,14,28} ⊃ {9,14}A ⊅ Bnot supersetset A is not a superset of set B{9,14,28} ⊅ {9,66}2Apower setall subsets of A power setall subsets of AA = Bequalityboth sets have the same membersA={3,9,14},
B={3,9,14},
A=BAccomplementall the objects that do not belong to set AA \ Brelative complementobjects that belong to A and not to BA = {3,9,14},
B = {1,2,3},
A-B = {9,14}A - Brelative complementobjects that belong to A and not to BA = {3,9,14},
B = {1,2,3},
A-B = {9,14}A ∆ Bsymmetric differenceobjects that belong to A or B but not totheir intersectionA = {3,9,14},
B = {1,2,3},
A ∆ B = {1,2,9,14}A ⊖ Bsymmetric differenceobjects that belong to A or B but not to their intersectionA = {3,9,14},
B = {1,2,3},
A ⊖ B = {1,2,9,14}a∈Aelement of,
belongs toset membershipA={3,9,14}, 3 ∈ Ax∉Anot element ofno set membershipA={3,9,14}, 1 ∉ A(a,b)ordered paircollection of 2 elementsA×Bcartesian productset of all ordered pairs from A and BA×B = {(a,b)|a∈A , b∈B}|A|cardinalitythe number of elements of set AA={3,9,14}, |A|=3#Acardinalitythe number of elements of set AA={3,9,14}, #A=3|vertical barsuch thatA={x|3<x<14} aleph-nullinfinite cardinality of natural numbers set aleph-onecardinality of countable ordinal numbers setØempty setØ = { }C = {Ø} universal setset of all possible values 0natural numbers / whole numbers set (with zero) 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...}0 ∈ 0 1natural numbers / whole numbers set (without zero) 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...}6 ∈ 1 integer numbers set = {...-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...}-6 ∈  rational numbers set = {x | x=a/b,a,b }2/6 ∈  real numbers set = {x | -∞ < x <∞}6.343434∈  complex numbers set = {z | z=a+bi, -∞<a<∞, -∞<b<∞}6+2i (Video) List of Mathematical Symbols in English | Math Symbols Vocabulary Words
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExampleandandx y^caret / circumflexandx ^ y&ampersandandx & y+plusorx + y∨reversed caretorxy|vertical lineorx | yx'single quotenot - negationx'xbarnot - negationx¬notnot - negation¬ x!exclamation marknot - negation! x⊕circled plus / oplusexclusive or - xorxy~tildenegation~ x⇒implies⇔equivalentif and only if (iff)↔equivalentif and only if (iff)∀for all∃there exists∄there does not exists∴therefore∵because / since
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample limitlimit value of a functionεepsilonrepresents a very small number, near zeroε 0ee constant / Euler's numbere = 2.718281828...e = lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞y 'derivativederivative - Lagrange's notation(3x3)' = 9x2y ''second derivativederivative of derivative(3x3)'' = 18xy(n)nth derivativen times derivation(3x3)(3) = 18 derivativederivative - Leibniz's notationd(3x3)/dx = 9x2 second derivativederivative of derivatived2(3x3)/dx2 = 18x nth derivativen times derivation time derivativederivative by time - Newton's notation time second derivativederivative of derivativeDx yderivativederivative - Euler's notationDx2ysecond derivativederivative of derivative partial derivative∂(x2+y2)/∂x = 2xintegralopposite to derivation∫ f(x)dx∫∫double integralintegration of function of 2 variables∫∫ f(x,y)dxdy∫∫∫triple integralintegration of function of 3 variables∫∫∫ f(x,y,z)dxdydz∮closed contour / line integral∯closed surface integral∰closed volume integral[a,b]closed interval[a,b] = {x | a x b}(a,b)open interval(a,b) = {x | a < x < b}iimaginary uniti ≡ √-1z = 3 + 2iz*complex conjugatez = a+biz*=a-biz* = 3 - 2izcomplex conjugatez = a+biz =a-biz = 3 - 2iRe(z)real part of a complex numberz = a+bi → Re(z)=aRe(3 - 2i) = 3Im(z)imaginary part of a complex numberz = a+bi → Im(z)=bIm(3 - 2i) = -2| z |absolute value/magnitude of a complex number|z| = |a+bi| = &Sqrt;(a2+b2)|3 - 2i| = &Sqrt;13arg(z)argument of a complex numberThe angle of the radius in the complex planearg(3 + 2i) = 33.7°∇nabla / delgradient / divergence operator∇f (x,y,z) vector unit vectorx * yconvolutiony(t) = x(t) * h(t) Laplace transformF(s) = {f (t)} Fourier transformX(ω) = {f (t)}δdelta function∞lemniscateinfinity symbol
NameWestern ArabicRomanEastern ArabicHebrewzero0٠one1I١אtwo2II٢בthree3III٣גfour4IV٤דfive5V٥הsix6VI٦וseven7VII٧זeight8VIII٨חnine9IX٩טten10X١٠יeleven11XI١١יאtwelve12XII١٢יבthirteen13XIII١٣יגfourteen14XIV١٤ידfifteen15XV١٥טוsixteen16XVI١٦טזseventeen17XVII١٧יזeighteen18XVIII١٨יחnineteen19XIX١٩יטtwenty20XX٢٠כthirty30XXX٣٠לforty40XL٤٠מfifty50L٥٠נsixty60LX٦٠סseventy70LXX٧٠עeighty80LXXX٨٠פninety90XC٩٠צone hundred100C١٠٠ק
(Video) List of Mathematical Symbols in English
Upper Case LetterLower Case LetterGreek Letter NameEnglish Equivalent Letter Name PronounceΑαAlphaaal-faΒβBetabbe-taΓγGammagga-maΔδDeltaddel-taΕεEpsiloneep-si-lonΖζZetazze-taΗηEtaheh-taΘθThetathte-taΙιIotaiio-taΚκKappakka-paΛλLambdallam-daΜμMumm-yooΝνNunnooΞξXixx-eeΟοOmicronoo-mee-c-ronΠπPippa-yeeΡρRhorrowΣσSigmassig-maΤτTautta-ooΥυUpsilonuoo-psi-lonΦφPhiphf-eeΧχChichkh-eeΨψPsipsp-seeΩωOmegaoo-me-ga
NumberRoman numeral0not defined1I2II3III4IV5V6VI7VII8VIII9IX10X11XI12XII13XIII14XIV15XV16XVI17XVII18XVIII19XIX20XX30XXX40 XL50L60LX70LXX80LXXX90XC100C200CC300CCC400CD500D600DC700DCC800DCCC900CM1000M5000V10000X50000L100000C500000D1000000M

## FAQs

### Math Symbols List (+,-,x,/,=,...)? ›

The symbol ≤ means less than or equal to. The symbol ≥ means greater than or equal to.

What does ≤ mean in algebra? ›

The symbol ≤ means less than or equal to. The symbol ≥ means greater than or equal to.

What is the math symbol for all X? ›

∀x for all x Something is true for all (any) value of x (usually with a side condition like ∀x > 0).

What does X ∈ I mean in math? ›

Or if I is the interval [1,2], then x∈I means x is some real number in that interval, i.e., x satisfies 1≤x≤2.

What does || X || mean in math? ›

||x|| is the absolute value of x. It is a measure of how far a number is from zero on the number line. 17.

What are the symbols of algebra? ›

Algebra Symbols With Names
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning/definition
xx variableunknown value to find
:=equal by definitionequal by definition
equal by definitionequal by definition
approximately equalapproximation
26 more rows

What symbols mean in algebra? ›

Common Symbols Used in Algebra
SymbolMeaningExample
=equals1+1 = 2
approximately equal toπ ≈ 3.14
not equal toπ ≠ 2
< ≤less than, less than or equal to2 < 3
16 more rows

What does [] mean in math? ›

These symbols are called brackets. Brackets in mathematics serve a very important purpose; these symbols help us group different expressions or numbers together. Brackets imply that the thing or expression enclosed by them is to be given higher precedence over other things.

What does AXB mean in sets? ›

A Cartesian product of two sets A and B, written as A×B, is the set containing ordered pairs from A and B. That is, if C=A×B, then each element of C is of the form (x,y), where x∈A and y∈B: A×B={(x,y)|x∈A and y∈B}.

What does ∃ mean in math? ›

The symbol ∀ means “for all” or “for any”. The symbol ∃ means “there exists”.

### What does the symbol ⊗ mean? ›

Symbol. ⊗︀ (mathematics) tensor product. (mathematics, physics) A vector pointing into the page. (mathematics) An operator indicating special-defined operation that is similar to multiplication.

What are the math symbols in order? ›

The order of operations is a rule that tells the correct sequence of steps for evaluating a math expression. We can remember the order using PEMDAS: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division (from left to right), Addition and Subtraction (from left to right). Created by Sal Khan.

What are these symbols called in English * {} []? ›

Curly brackets {}

Curly brackets, also known as braces, are rarely used punctuation marks that are used to group a set.

What does € mean in texting? ›

In Statistics Explained articles the symbol '€' should be used for euro in the text if it is followed by a number.

What does K mean in algebra? ›

where k is the constant of variation. We can also express the relationship between x and y as: y = kx. where k is the constant of variation. Since k is constant (the same for every point), we can find k when given any point by dividing the y-coordinate by the x-coordinate.

What do [] brackets mean in math? ›

In mathematics, brackets are a set of marks, like parentheses, that are used to enclose a group of terms. Any terms that are enclosed within the brackets must be treated as a group. For example, in the expression 3(x+5), x+5 is enclosed within brackets, and this quantity must be treated as a single unit.

What is the symbols formula for mean? ›

The symbol 'μ' represents the population mean. The symbol 'Σ Xi' represents the sum of all scores present in the population (say, in this case) X1 X2 X3 and so on.

What does ∩ and ∪ mean in math? ›

∪: Union of two sets. A complete Venn diagram represents the union of two sets. ∩: Intersection of two sets.

What is an example of AUB? ›

Example 1: If A = {2,5,8,9} and B = {3,5,8,11}, then calculate A U B. We use the A U B formula by simply writing all the terms present in set A and set B together and no element is repeated. Note: It is not necessary for the elements to be in order. 2.

What is AxB BxA an example of? ›

Cartesian Product is also known as Cross Product. Thus from the example, we can say that AxB and BxA don't have the same ordered pairs. Therefore, AxB ≠ BxA. If A = B then AxB is called the Cartesian Square of Set A and is represented as A2.

### Is a division symbol? ›

The symbol for division, or sharing into equal groups, is ÷.

Is a slash a division symbol? ›

Once used to mark periods and commas, the slash is now used to represent division and fractions, exclusive 'or' and inclusive 'or', and as a date separator.

What does meann mean in math? ›

Mean is the simple mathematical average of a set of two or more numbers. The mean for a given set of numbers can be computed in more than one way, including the arithmetic mean method, which uses the sum of the numbers in the series, and the geometric mean method, which is the average of a set of products.

Why does and mean multiply? ›

If you want the probability of A and B you multiply if the events are independent. If they are dependent you have to mutiply the probability of one by the conditional probability of the other, given the one. If you want the probability of A or B you add if the events are mutually exclusive.

What is 2i equal to? ›

i2 is equal to -1, a real number!

Does and mean to multiply? ›

Given “A and B,” where A and B are either true (non-zero) or false (0), “and” is multiplication. For example, the truth of “it's raining and I'm wearing a red shirt and …” is multiplicative: I have to evaluate all the inputs to find if the statement is true. Given “A or B,” we get addition.

What does () mean in math? ›

1. Parentheses are used in mathematical expressions to denote modifications to normal order of operations (precedence rules). In an expression like , the part of the expression within the parentheses, , is evaluated first, and then this result is used in the rest of the expression.

What is the name of symbol in math? ›

Basic Mathematical Symbols With Name, Meaning and Examples
SymbolSymbol Name in MathsMath Symbols Meaning
×times signmultiplication
*asteriskmultiplication
÷division sign / obelusdivision
multiplication dotmultiplication
27 more rows
Jun 16, 2020

What is a symbol in mathematical terms? ›

A mathematical symbol is a figure or a combination of figures that is used to represent a mathematical object, an action on mathematical objects, a relation between mathematical objects, or for structuring the other symbols that occur in a formula.

Does * mean multiply in math? ›

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol ×, by the mid-line dot operator ⋅, by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk *) is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the other ones being addition, subtraction, and division.

### What is the rule of order in math? ›

The order of operations is a rule that tells the correct sequence of steps for evaluating a math expression. We can remember the order using PEMDAS: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division (from left to right), Addition and Subtraction (from left to right).

Does dot mean multiply? ›

The dot operator symbol is used in math to represent multiplication and, in the context of linear algebra, as the dot product operator. Typically, the symbol is used in an expression like this: 3⋅5. In plain language, this expression means three multiplied by five.

How do you get rid of i in math? ›

Answer and Explanation: We can get rid of imaginary numbers in an equation by separating the complex numbers to one side and real number terms to the other side of the equals sign. Then we can simply square both sides to get rid of the imaginary numbers.

What is 7I? ›

7I or 7-I can refer to: IATA code for Insel Air. Seven & I Holdings Co., Japanese holding company for 7-Eleven.

Is i 1 in math? ›

"i" in math is known as an imaginary unit. Its value is √-1. It is used to calculate the square roots of negative numbers. It is also a part of complex numbers.

How do you add chances together? ›

When calculating the probability of either one of two events from occurring, it is as simple as adding the probability of each event and then subtracting the probability of both of the events occurring: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)

What symbols mean multiply? ›

Arithmetic. the symbol (⋅), (×), or (∗) between two mathematical expressions, denoting multiplication of the second expression by the first. In certain algebraic notations the sign is suppressed and multiplication is indicated by immediate juxtaposition or contiguity, as in ab.

What symbols and words mean multiply? ›

Symbol of Multiplication

Multiplication is represented by the signs cross (×), asterisk (*), or dot (·). While writing in your notebooks, you are most likely to use the cross. The asterisk and dot are used in computer languages and algebra (higher mathematics). For example: 7 ∗ 8 = 56.

## Videos

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5. Math Symbols in Spanish.List of Mathematical Symbols in Spanish.
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